Monday, September 30, 2019

Freedom: Political Philosophy and Current Societal Setting Essay

In our current societal setting we, as citizens, are essentially free. Many people have differing opinions as to what this freedom should entail. Americans have always stood their ground in the fight for liberties and privileges, both civil and personal, which we feel are deserved. This is a continuing scenario as cultural progression opens new doors for a variety of people. Many have written in the past concerning this topic. These writings are transcendent through time and are still applicable today. One noteworthy author who discusses freedom being Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau’s writings focus on the defining of what freedom is, how to acquire it and how to maintain that freedom once it is achieved. Countless times these works have been used as reference to help people make a more solid decision as to their own definition of freedom. I will be using these works to discuss my own views concerning this subject and how society today is affected by these different scenarios. Freedom can be defined in different ways by different people depending on their personal experiences and beliefs. Most people will agree that our society offers a freedom which is acceptable for comfort in their daily lives. Yet there are others who will note the underlying causes of restriction within our given rules and regulations. Our laws are given with the intent of protection of our fellow citizens and maintenance of peace. Many of these laws can be defined as upholding morality such as those stating that murder or thievery are wrong. Others are more susceptible to circumstance such as traffic laws. The latter may be considered by many as an infringement of personal rights and an annoyance. We are subjected to these rules by others who hold positions of power and many may feel their opinions are neglected when these are put into place. Even though the majority of these laws can be agreed upon as being right, we must obey those we do not agree with as well or face the consequences. Commonly debated laws include the legalization of controlled substances and restrictions of medical practices, such as abortion. According to Rousseau, â€Å"Just as the shepherd is superior in kind to his sheep, so, too, the shepherds of men, or, in other words, their rulers, are superior in kind to the peoples. † (Rousseau 60) I believe this to mean that only a select few are given the opportunity to actually instate certain regulations, while the citizens may or may not agree with them. This would be a definite violation of the peoples’ collective rights. Often times, people will follow these rules anyways in order to avoid the persecution that may accompany fighting against them. Others choose to take the opposite approach and make a stand against whatever power may be enforcing these unjust laws, regardless of consequence. People have, in the past, been able to make great changes by putting in the work necessary to accomplish this. In turn, many doors have been opened for groups that would have otherwise been denied. Rousseau also states, â€Å"Obey the powers that be†¦ no case will ever be found of its violation. † (Rousseau 62) As most laws do provide a sort of security for the general public, I feel that some sacrifices or annoyances are bearable and necessary. Achieving an ideal state in society is a difficult task and as a member of this society it is my responsibility to think of the needs of others regardless of my own preferences. The rules that are in place are there for good reason and ensure that other, more necessary freedoms are not violated. Often times in our society, the luxuries given are taken for granted. Many other nations are subject to difficulties and atrocities which the majority of us simply cannot relate to. It can sometimes be difficult to look past what we have in the way of rights and privileges. Also, for us to be free it is not enough that no one stops me from doing something I want to do. I must also have the means to do that. Even if no law prevents me from doing something, should I be unable to act in the chosen way because I lack the necessary education or resources? Certain laws such as taxes and fees for government processes are devised in such a way as to eventually come full circle and direct the benefits back to us. Many don’t agree with these certain taxations despite what was previously mentioned. Our roads, parks and other public works are a perfect example of what these laws provide for us. Laws such as these are necessary for the upstart and maintenance of comfortable living in our communities. It needs to be understood that we, as a nation, have such a great opportunity that many other nations and people in this world can only imagine. We must be careful not to let our freedom slip away as a result of that freedom being taken for granted.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Life development Essay

The aim of this research is to explore a married couple’s real life experiences and the possible influences that affect their life development. A qualitative thematic analysis was carried out on pre-existing material of three semi-structured interviews and a video. Two main themes were identified : Various Influences and Changeable. This analysis showed support for some research done regarding Erikson’s development stages, Peck’s contribution on later life, developmental contextualism and Bronfenbrenner’s theory. The findings suggest that life development is multi-facet. A reflexive analysis reviews some limitation on this analysis and recommendations are also made. INTRODUCTION Lifespan development is the one among different psychological perspectives. Psychologists are of different views on human development. Some of them split human development into different stages, some of them focus on the people’s later development, some are optimistic but some not, and some opined that our development are deterministic but also some do not think so. Erik Erikson has developed a theory named as Psychosocial in which he stated that there would be eight development stages from birth to later adulthood within our life. (Cooper & Roth, 2002). The theory emphasised that our development is a product of the interaction between the society and individual; and our parents seems to play a key role in our early life. Erikson argued that everyone must develop throughout these eight stages. While treating later life as a relative stable period, Erikson neglect the room of change during the middle and old stages, to cope with this difficulty, Peck further subdivided these two stages into sub-stages. For middle age, Peck consider that we should acknowledge our loss of physical strength while also appreciate our gaining of wisdom, the main task within these stage is to redefine one’s personality and personal relationship. Besides, individual should shift their emotional attachment to both the vertical and horizontal relationship, i. e. the death of parents and friendship (Cooper & Roth, 2002). For old age, in order to cater the crisis of retirement, Peck argued that individual need to seek other meaningful activities, thus accepted by themselves that they are continually contribute to and valued by the society. Other approach on lifespan development is named as developmental contextualism. It emphasised that development of an individual cannot be seen as an isolated manner, rather, there are internal (e. g. physical fitness) and external (e. g. cultural and social) factors that influences one’s development. These factors are referred as a level of explanation by psychologists, they comprise different variables, for instances, interpersonal influence, cultural influence, historical influence and etc. These variables would interact and change each other at the same or a different level of explanation which is known as dynamic interactionism. (Cooper & Roth, 2002) In contrast to developmental contextualism, Bronfenbrenner is of different view. He argued that individuals are capable to determine their own development rather than simply constrained by internal and external influences. In his ‘ecological’ theory of development, he suggested that individuals are actively interact with his or her environment during their development. According to the theory, it divided individual physical environment into four parts, i. e. micosystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem as well. The microsystem refers to one’s immediate environment, includes social, symbolic and physical characteristics, e. g. personality, healths, values and expectations. The mesosystem describes two or more microsystems inhabited by the same person, e. g. family, work and marriage. Links that take place between two or more settings involving the individual is known as the exosystem, i. e. our community. The macrosystem illustrates the patterns of the aforesaid systems that characterize any given culture or society structures. (Cooper & Roth, 2002) In view of the above approaches, it seems that human development are encompassed by different stages, with internal and external influences; and individuals are with ability to actively change it during the process of development. The purpose of this qualitative research is to see how a couple, Tony and Jo experienced their life and what influence to their development indeed. METHOD Three semi-structured interviews were conducted of a (an aging) couple, Tony and Jo. There is no information on the exact ages of the stakeholders, including the interviewees and the three interviewers. For teaching purposes, the process of the interviews were videotaped with the interviewees’ consent. The interviews touch topics of identity, separation and attachment and lifespan development. The first interview was conducted by a female researcher Jane who knew that couple for several years. A male researcher has conducted the second interview who knew none about that couple. The last interviewer was a female who asked them about their experiences on the first two interviews. The research was adopted analysing pre-existing materials. It assumed that the Open University of United Kingdom (OUUK) adhered strictly to the British psychological code of ethics such as obtaining informed written consent, addressing issues around confidentiality, protection of participant’s identities, permission to withdraw at any time and sufficient debriefing. (Miell, Phoenix & Thomas, 2002). I am a Chinese male, a part-time psychology student (36 years of age) of the Open University of Hong Kong, and carried out a qualitative thematic analysis on transcripts and video provided by the OUUK. (see Appendix for the full annotated transcripts and an extracted video of the three interviews is also attached) The lifespan development research topic and question were selected and supplied by the OUUK (DSE 212, Method Booklet 5, pages 60 and 61). Familiarization of material was done by reading Chapter 1 in Book 2 (Cooper & Roth, 2002). The next stage of the analysis involved my reading the transcripts several times – noting significant points related to my chosen research topic. I then identified recurrent themes from the transcripts. Two main themes were identified and the data was condensed under these themes. This was achieved by photocopying the transcripts and highlighting each bit of the dialogue relating to the themes in different colour pens. Only the first two interviews were used in this research.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Lab Results Fermenter Essay

To determine the amount of anti-microbial peptide production by Staphylococcus warneri under various conditions when 2L and 10L Fermented. To Test the effects of one uncontrolled parameters sush as pH, Temperature or dissolved Oxygen and compare findings. To produce anti-microbial activity from Staphylococcus warneri.Staphylococcus warneri is a member of bacterial genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells appearing in clusters. Colonies of S. warneri are usually tan, yellow and about 2-4mm in diameter after 48 hours incubation at 35Â °C. It is commonly found as part of the skin flora on humans and animals. S. warneri rarely causes disease, but may occasionally cause infection in patients whose immune system is compromised. S. warneri is known to produce antimicrobial peptide activity in the form of Nisin. The optimum conditions for this to occur are pH 7. Nisin is a polycylic antibacterial peptide with 34 amino acid residues used as a food preservative. It is produced by bacterium and which contains antimicrobial activity and which is known as a bacteriocin. Nisin has been found to have properties that can control spoilage caused by lactic acid bacteria.

Friday, September 27, 2019

How an iPod works Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How an iPod works - Essay Example You want to know more about this Ipod, but are overwhelmed by the technical jargon of MP3 and DMZ protocol. Yet, under that veil of secrecy lies a simple device that requires only a simple understanding. The Ipod is a three-step process of getting an input, looking for some human interface, and giving an output. Long before you listen to a song on your Ipod, a studio somewhere on the West Coast had disassembled the song and broken into small pieces waiting to be purchased. They take these pieces and squeeze them down and compress them into small packets called the MP3 format. When you order this song it is quickly thrown into a delivery system called a download. The packets come through the Internet, into your computer, out to your Ipod, and are stored in a box called memory. The squeezed packets, under great pressure, will sit and wait until their next calling. The song that was broken up only moments ago has buried itself deep within your machine through a step called input. The input sits in the box and waits for the human interface. In the world of Ipod, the output is the small brain, the human is the big brain, and the input is no brain at all. Here in the 2nd step the Ipod waits for human control. The big brain kicks in and presses the right buttons, it locates the mood, and navigates to the proper memory box. The big brain sets the tone, volume, and play list.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Women and Film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Women and Film - Essay Example In fact she is shooting at the strictures that life has posed for her and Thelma, and the rest of the film shows them breaking out of them. Thelma and Louise starts with two shots that portrays women in a very ordinary, subservient roles. Thus "LOUISE is a waitress in a coffee shop . . . she is in her early thirties, but too old to be doing this", while "THELMA is a housewife . . . slamming coffee cups from the breakfast table into the kitchen sink, which is full of dirty breakfast dishes and some stuff left from last night's dinner. . . "1 They are both, at this stage at least, apparent caricatures of the controlled and limited lives that women are forced to lead. Most telling here is the fact that Thelma must ask her husband if she can go, rather than merely informing him that she is going on a trip with a friend. Louise's reaction is also very revealing as she, while the apparently more independent of the two, at least legitimizes the idea that her friend should have to gain permission from her husband. She immediately expands it to the "husband or father" comment, but her initial (and thus perhaps instinctive) reaction is to annoyed because they are just about to leave and Thelma hasn't gained permission. The first The first sign of rebellion in these early minutes of the film comes with the screeenwriter's note that Thelma "decides not to tell him" (her husband) that she is going on the trip. Her husband, along with nearly all the men portrayed in the film is vain and arrogant, without having the goods to back up either tendency. Men are shown in the same two-dimensional light that women are normally portrayed as in films. Thus all the men are vain, violent and/or stupid in the same way that women are often seen as money-grabbing, mothers or whores in most films. Thelma and Louise must break away from these two-dimensional caricatures in order to find themselves. The hint that violence may be at least a possibility occurs when Thelma surprisingly puts a gun into her bag along with a box of ammunition, with the rather cryptic comment "psycho killers". Whether she is referring to potentially violent men or whether this is perhaps a foreshadowing of the crime spree that she and her friend are just about to stumble into is unclear. The lack of clarity as to why what is about to occur does actually happen has perhaps contributed to the varied critical opinion of this movie. Thus while Nick Schager, in Slant, argues that the film's "feminist call to arms winds up sounding woefully simple-minded"3, Matt Brunson disagrees, saying "this beautifully realized picture remains a trenchant, almost mystical slice of Americana"4 Most critics seem to have fallen somewhere between the two, suggesting that the apparent glorification of casual violence that the film portrays is in fact a reflection of a certain segment of American society. As Wesley Lovell writes, Thelma and Louise is "a

Cosco Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cosco - Case Study Example al., 2008, p. C-3). While this business model has been entirely successful thus far, the provision of limited choices can be problematic in the long-term. With globalization consumers are increasingly confronted with a variety of choices. Therefore shopping in an environment with limited choices may go against what modern consumers have come to expect and prefer. Costco’s business model has nevertheless been successful so far. For example in 2006, total sales in Costco’s 496 stores worldwide amounted to US$ 59 billion. Membership included 26 million private members and 5.2 million business members which amounted to US$1.2 billion in fees for Costco membership. Each of Costco’s stores realize sales each year at an average of US$128 million while its closest competitor Sam’s Club realizes only US$67 million annually (Thompson, et. al., 2008). However, since Costco and Sam’s Club are based on the same business model, the disparity in sales might be a m atter of concern. Costco can expect that at some stage Sam’s Club will attempt to take some of Costco’s market shares and the sales’ positions can be reversed. ... For example, operating costs increased progressively from US$1,037 million in 2000 to US$1,626 in 2006. However, net sales and membership fees together increased from US$32,164 million in 2000 to US$60,151 million in 2006 showing progressive increases from year to year. At the end of 2000, Costco had 313 stores operating worldwide and by the end of 2006, Costco had 458 stores. Membership has also followed a similar pattern, increasing each year from 2000-2006 (Thompson, et. al., 2008). Although membership is a big part of the business model it is a more significant marketing strategy and will be critiqued in the next section. The successful business model of offering quality goods at low prices is enabled by the warehouse membership set-up. By taking this approach, Costco is able to save the cost involved in in-store decorum and in-store customer service. In fact, Costco’s various warehouses typically display bare cement floors and shopping is designed like a â€Å"treasure h unt† experience (Thompson, et. al., 2008, p. C-6). Moreover, Costco offers limited products in volumes to lower the cost of inventory and floor management. For example, a typical supermarket or supercenter such as Wal-Mart or SuperTarget will offer between 40, 000 and 150,000 items while Costco offers only 4,000 items (Thompson, et. al., 2008). Thus far, Costco’s business model has been successful, however increasing competition indicates that Costco might have to consider revamping its business model. For instance, Costco’s largest business rival, Sam’s Club and BJ’s both use a similar business model. Both Sam’s Club and BJ’s have similar in-store lay-outs, offer about 4,000 items and feature the treasure hunt experience in which luxury goods are available at lower

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

HSBC as a Financial Service Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

HSBC as a Financial Service - Assignment Example They also are a provider of a large number of financial services to a large number of customers. These services include Commercial banking, Personal Financial Services, Private Banking and Global Banking and Markets (HSBC, 2010). Lloyd’s is one of the well known and trusted financial institutions. It has grown over the years to become one of the globally recognized and prominent figures in Dow Jones index and FTSE 100. It has been one of the greatest British institutions that have developed itself into the global business. The rating agencies have recognized the organization by providing the securities high rates that shows that the firm has been performing well (Lloyd’s, 2010). Marketing of the financial services has been one of the recent phenomena even in the developed nations of the world. The financial service sector has not been subjected to the market pressure in an attempt to survive and prosper. This sector has operated in the benign market environment in most of the countries and has been managed and controlled by the state itself. The government has helped in the development of the new products as well as in the promotional activities. The strategic marketing planning helps to set the direction for the medium to long-term. In order to complement the strategic marketing plan, it would be best for the companies to have an annual marketing plan in order to achieve the short term marketing objectives (Ennew & Waite, 2007). The main strategy of the HSBC Bank has been to build its position as the leader in the international as well as the emerging markets. It tries to pay the employees according to their performances that include market-based pay. The bank has a transparent structure that is based on the separately capitalized subsidiaries. It also takes a conservative approach to the liquidity management and has developed its business in such a way that helps to provide diversified and broad global services.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Integrations and reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Integrations and reflection - Essay Example My skills and abilities to deal with numbers have also increased and I am now able to interpret figures well. This course has made me more confident in terms of handling statistical tools. During this session I was asked by my teacher to create a project that would encompass all the statistical methods and this would be used to analyze the data of real life organization. I tried my best to fulfill the conditions of the project but somehow I feel that I could have done better by incorporating more of statistical methods and getting them approved by my teacher before applying them on any real time data. I did not understand three topics related to the course that is ANOVA and regression, statistics survey, and probability. These topics I feel were not well explained by my teacher. These topics need further improvement according to me and I feel that it would be more beneficial if more problems are given in the class to be solved (Johnson & Kuby, 2011). These problems should be diverse so that students are able to apply maximum methods to derive solutions and interpret the results. In any course it is very essential to build a strong knowledge base as on it lays the future progress and development. I feel the best way to measure to future progress is by evaluating the level of understanding. If I opt for a career related to statistics then my marks would be a measuring tool for the outcomes of this course. The other factor is that this course would enable me to think towards a direction and choose a career that would help me to explore the skills that I gained through this course. I was able to achieve the outcomes of the course however I feel that I could have been more proficient with the statistical tools and methods. I was able to understand the different approaches in statistics and would be able to deal with problems efficiently in the future. The other learning outcome that I achieved is that of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Why Americans should embrace Alternative fuel vehicles Term Paper

Why Americans should embrace Alternative fuel vehicles - Term Paper Example If this trend is to continue in the future, then very shortly the phenomenon of 'peak oil' would be triggered and global competition of remaining oil will escalate the prices beyond affordability. Moreover, there is the persuasive argument from environment preservation angle. If current energy usage patterns continue for a few more decades then the ecosystems and environments across the world would be damaged beyond repair, putting at risk the long-term survival of our species. (Borowitz, 1999, p.255) The rest of this essay will elaborate on these points and present the reasons why Americans should embrace alternative fuel vehicles. Beyond concerns about peak-oil and issues of sustaining conventional oil supplies, there is the danger posed by environmental pollution. While manufacturing industries play their part in polluting air, water and soil, the chief contributors are motor vehicles. For example, 90% of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the o zone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. (Meotti, 1995, p.27) With car ownership per-capita in America being one of the highest among advanced economies, there is a urgent need for alternative fuels. There is also the option of attempting to reduce car sales and car usage. But since this outcome is highly unlikely, finding substitute fuels for petroleum-based ones is the more plausible option going forward. Soybean oil is another alternative fuel that holds a lot of promise. When oil prices spiked during the first Gulf War in 1991, American farmers put to use the huge surplus of soybean oil stored in tanks across the country. They said that Soybean oil can be refined into bio-diesel, which can be used by vehicles. Already, by this time, bio-diesel was being manufactured in Europe using rapeseed oil. And by following the same procedure, Soybean oil could also be converted into bio-diesel, which would prove to be a cleaner and eco-friendly energy alternative. (Schmidt, 200 7, p.87) Experts and business people have now identified bio-diesel as a key player in the alternative fuels market. It also has the advantage of being produced by both small-scale manufacturers as well as large industries. While bio-diesel cannot completely substitute for petroleum products, it has the capacity to power a wide variety of vehicles. At present 95% of passenger vehicles in America run on gasoline. Bio-diesel can significantly help reduce this percentage. (Schmidt, 2007, p.87) Promoters of bio-diesel also feel that its advantages outweigh its disadvantages. It is not only a sustainable energy option, but also an eco-friendly one. For example, â€Å"Numerous studies show that compared to petrodiesel, B20 emits at least 10% less particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons. The relevant data are summarized in a 2006 NREL report titled Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Vehicle Emissions. Unlike fossil fuels--which contain carbon from underground sources--biod iesel contains carbon from plants that were recently alive and drawing carbon from the atmosphere. For that reason, burning it doesn't add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than what was already there. What's more, biodiesel contains 11% oxygen by weight, which enhances fuel combustion, and reduces the amount of carcinogenic soot that diesel engines spew into the air.† (Schmidt, 2007, p.87) Diesel-run vehicles, on the other hand, are decisively more polluting. They release a lot of sulphur into the atmosphere, which in turn creates sulfate-based particulates, which in turn

Sunday, September 22, 2019

U.S Foreign Policy on Pakistan Essay Example for Free

U.S Foreign Policy on Pakistan Essay The United States’ foreign policy on Pakistan has been the subject of many reviews and the disparate and often unambiguous viewpoints articulated by Journalists and others have painted a picture of a country facing gargantuan challenges and in desperate need of a coherent U. S. policy that will help to pull it from the brink of nuclear abyss. Pakistan is one of the most populous countries in the world and shares border with Iran, Afghanistan, China and India. It is a nation of diverse culture and different ethnic groups. Pakistan was an Ally of the United States in the 1980s; the period during which the Soviets were waging war in neighboring Afghanistan. Relationship soured when the Taliban, an Islamic terrorist group, ruled Pakistan during 1996 – 2001. However, the relationship between the two countries improved after the September, 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United State and Pakistan has now become an ally in the fight against terrorists. The United States policy towards Pakistan cannot be viewed in isolation as Pakistan is seen as a vital country that can lend stability to a region fraught with war and ethnical disagreements. Pakistan has nuclear capabilities and there is a grave concern pertaining to nuclear proliferation: The hope is that terrorists will not get their hands on nuclear material from that country. Terrorists associated with the Taliban have been using parts of Pakistan as a base to launch terrorist attacks. Helene Cooper, writing in The New York Times on March 8, 2009, articulated that experts in the region feel that the United States may need to have conversations to leaders of the Taliban if it is serious about gaining peace and stability in Pakistan and surrounding countries. This is at odds with the stated policy of the Bush administration of not having dialogs with terrorists. Cooper cites a new thrust by the new Obama administration to approach elements within the Taliban. United States Policy focus and changes are closely linked to concerns to not just about the Taliban, but also concerns about Al Qaeda. Mark Mazzetti and David Rohde article in The New York times of June 30, 2008 posit the grave concerns regarding the Al Qaeda threat to Pakistan, the United States and other nations. Osama Bin Laden, the architect of the horrific attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, has been expanding his network in Pakistan and the journalists quoted intelligence sources detailing Osama’s activities. The Journalists opined that there were serious missteps on the part of Washington and Islamabad concerning Policy agreements. The journalist also said that there was a secret US plan using Special Operation forces to launch missions into Pakistan to capture and kill the leaders of Al Qaeda. Carlotta Gall’s article in the New York Times of March 11, 2009 provided further evidence of a paradigm shift in US policy towards Pakistan. Hardliners in the Taliban, such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar is reported to have softened his stance of demanding the exodus of all US troops from Pakistan and is now more willing to attend talks. American Officials are not commenting on negotiations with the Taliban however feedback from diplomats in Kabul shows that the United States has grown more receptive to negotiations. Helene Cooper and Sheryl Stolberg insightful article in the New York Times of March 7, 2009 also posit that the new Obama administration’s shift in policy concerning Pakistan would also mean a willingness to engage moderate elements of the Taliban. The US successfully engaged militant Sunni Militias in Iraq which led to a diminution in violence in that country. The Journalist feels that the new administration wants to adopt and translate this Policy to Pakistan. The US policy towards Pakistan has evolved over time and the journalistic views have painted a picture of dynamic and ever changing dialog. Steve Myers article in The New York times dated July 29, 2008 speaks of President George Bush’s praise for Pakistan’s determination to fight extremists along its borders and the allies seem to be working together again. Work Cited Cooper, Helene and Sheryl Gay Stolberg.â€Å"Obama Ponders Outreach top Elements of Taliban. † New York Times. March 7, 2009: WK1. Cooper, Helene. â€Å"Dreaming of splitting the Taliban. † New York Times. March 8, 2009: WK1. Gall, Carlotta. â€Å" As Us Weights Taliban Negotiations, Afghans are already talking. † New York Times. March 11, 2009: A8. Myers, Steve L. â€Å"Bush Praises Pakistan Just Hours After US Strike. † New York Times. July 29, 2008 Mazzetti, Mark and David Rohde. â€Å"Amid US Policy Disputes, Qaeda grows in Pakistan. † New York Times. June 30, 2008.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Wsh Policy And Objectives At Azura

Wsh Policy And Objectives At Azura AZURA Chemical was established in 2009 and is situated in the Jurong Island, Singapore. It has a staff strength of 50 people. The company is a manufacturer of Ethoxylated Surfactants. Their main products are Ethoxylate Surface Active Agents; Polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters; Polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oils; Polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers. The company core values are. We believe and value open communication at every level in the organisation. We encourage creativity and challenge the Status Quo. We endeavor to respect every Individual by fostering a trusting environment and treating each person equal. Internal Factors The 3 Internal Factors are. 1. Current WSH Policy 2. Feedback from Internal Audit and Management review meeting. 3. Organisational WSH cultures. The WSH policy statement was to drive the company mission and objectives toward achieving its Environmental, Safety, Health and social responsibility. The company administered the policy via its policy deployment process by scheduling monthly communication meeting with staff and the Managing Director of the company took the personal responsibility to communicate the company policy. The Feedback from Internal Audit and Management review meeting was to put in place corrective and preventive actions plan and monitor the effectiveness of the current and new control measures put in place. It also act as a continuous improvement cycle to continually improve its Safety and Health objectives by review and making changes to its policy statement and objectives. They achieved this through their bi-yearly internal audit and 6 monthly management review meeting chair by their Managing Director. . Organisational WSH cultures. The company started the program to drive a culture shift by adopting a proactive instead of being reactive mindset in the areas of Safety and Health. Previously, program was only put in place only after a near missed and an accident situation. The procative program put in place are a weekly surveillance by management team walk-about. The senior management team basically walk through the factory and identify best practices, improvement areas and communicating with people on the shopfloor to better understand their concern in the areas of Health and Safety. The feedback are discussed during their monthly management meeting and the result or actions plan are posted in the notice board as a form of communication with their employee. External Factors The 3 External Factors are. Changes in Legal requirement. Trend in industrial practices United Nation / International labour Organisation directives. 1. Changes in Legal requirement. With the changes made to the WSH (SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND AUDITING) REGULATIONS 2009, PART III SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Implementation of safety and health management system 8.-(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of every workplace specified in the Second Schedule to implement a safety and health management system for the purpose of ensuring the safety and health of persons at work in the workplace. Workplace safety and health audit 9.-(1) It shall be the duty of the occupier of any workplace specified in the Third Schedule to appoint a workplace safety and health auditor to audit the safety and health management system of the workplace at a frequency as specified in the Third Schedule. In order to comply with the regulation, the company have to engaged an External consultant to establish and develop the SHMS system based on SS 506 Part 3 ( SHMS for chemical industries). Thereafter, the company has to engaged an MOM approved SHMS auditor to do an audit on the company system. 2. Trend in industrial practices. Very Often, change in industrial practice or Best Practices influence the company WSH management system and control. Example are Technical Advisory from the WSHC which formulate and set-up new or updated Safety guideline for the general industry. The company will therefore need to update it management system, make changes to its internal procedures such as SWP and follow-up with the latest need for training to its employee. 3. United Nation / International labour Organisation directives. The Globally Harmonized System (GHC) was initiated at the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It aims, amongst other goals, to harmonize the classification and the hazard communication elements of chemicals (labeling and safety data sheets). The direct impact on Industry, end user and the implementation time frame for Singapore supplier, manufacturer and end-user. With the new directive, the company will need to implement new labeling format for all its Chemical Label to be pasted on all its container / drum before making delivery to all its customers by 2012. Changes will be made to its internal processes such as work and packaging procedures and changes to its OHS/WSH management system Current Policy OSH POLICY Azura Chemical Pte Ltd is committed to complying with all applicable Environmental, Health and safety Act and practices, including the commitment to meet or exceed applicable legal and other requirements, to strive for continual improvement in our OSH management system, and to minimize/eliminate safety and Health hazards. We will, therefore, manage our processes, our materials and our people in order to reduce Safety Hazards and Health impacts associated with our work. We pledges to implement and operate the SHMS Management System to further enhance safety and health performance. Our main objectives are to: Establishing current and long-term goals to provide the necessary guidelines for continuous improvement of occupational safety and health. Publishing HSE objectives, activities and performance data as part of our OHS Risk Communication efforts. Working toward ZERO Accident Rate. Improving the overall working condition in Safety and Health. This policy will be communicated to all parties interested in the performance of our OSH management system. Signed: Azio Suzuki Date: 1 Feb 2009 Managing Director After reviewing the current policy, it will be beneficial for the company to demonstrate its commitment to the objectives i.e. How are they going to achieve them? We therefore will make some recommended by adding a commitment to achieve the objectives The additions are: We will meet theses commitment by : To establish current and long-term goals to provide the necessary guidelines for continuous improvement of occupational safety and health. To publish Occupational, Safety and Health (OSH) objectives, activities and performance data as part of our OHS hazard and risk communication efforts. To provide our employee with the appropriate education and relevant training they need to better understand their OHS roles and responsibilities. To hold every employee responsible for their own action that otherwise will impact the life of others, the overall health, safety and the environment we operate in. To take and make every effort and to work toward ZERO Accident Rate. To commit and Improve the overall working condition in Safety and Health. Identify and look into the relevant organisational structure/s essential in the alignment implementation of the WSH policy. (PC2.1, UK11) The company WSH come under the responsibility of the EHS Director and he report to the Corporate EHS Director and dotted line to the Managing Director. Under the leadership of the EHS director, the Safety and Health steering committee provide the guidance to overall deployment. The WSH officer get the directive from the steering committee and act as the liaison officer for all HSE.OHS matters and program. The WSH structure consist of 6 main function i.e. EHS Director, Human Resources, WSH officer, Facilities, Manufacturing and the Safety Committee / EHS . EHS Director. The EHS director works with the corporate EHS in setting all OHS policy, Safety and Health deployment , drive and monitor and review all the OHS performance indicators. WSH Officer. The officer works under the supervision and directive of the EHS director to implement, monitor and follow-up on all OHS matters and update key safety performance indicators monthly. He also chair the monthly safety inspection and meeting. He also provide expert advise to the director and staff. He works closely with the HR training department in formulating training programs. Together with the HR training executive, they perform and conduct Job safety and training needs analysis. Human Resources ( Training and Admin support) The HR department is assigned the role to support the WSH programs and arrange for external training need and also conducting in-house safety awareness induction program for all new employee. It also provides the administrative support, maintain documentation and manage the training programs for the company. The HR officer also work closely with the finance department to ensure funds are made available to implement and promote the WSH training. Manufacturing and Operations Work closely with WSH officer to conduct regular safety and health inspection and to identify any hazards in the workplace. Is also responsible to conduct and review all Risk Assessment for all the activities under their control. Responsible to establish Safe Work procedures (SWP) and enforce/monitor all Permit to work (PTW) system. He also support the company plant-wide SHMS management system and to ensure conformity to the policy ad procedures. Participate and support training requirement and planned program. Facilities. The facilities department manages all facilities support and equipment maintenance program to ensure machines and equipment are safe to operate. It also support and monitor all the fire fighting equipment and to ensure the equipment are maintained and comply with the relevant bodies such as SCDF. Assist the manufacturing department in evaluating purchase of new machineries and equipment in meeting safety and Health requirement before they are brought into the factory. Conduct and review all RA within the scope of facilities activities. Monitor and update any process change to comply with Health and safety requirement. Safety Committee ( Chairman and committee members) The committee under the leadership of the chairman and the guidance of the WSH officers perform and carried out all the objectives set by the Steering committee and perform daily, weekly and monthly WSH activities. Activities such as weekly or monthly Safety inspection, participate in the monthly Safety meeting. The WSH chairman sits in the Steering committee meeting to provide feedback, participating in formulating policy and objective and coordination work. Emergency Director ( SMC) The Site Main Coordinator (SMC) acts as the Emergency Director in an emergency situation. His role is to coordinate with the Site Incident Coordinator (SIC), the emergency team members and the SCDF. Site Incident Coordinator (SIC) The SIC role is to manage and coordinate the emergency response team in Fire fighting, mitigating a chemical spill and rescue operations, the First aid team, Evacuation and fire warden teams and communicate and updating the SMC on the emergency situation and status on a regular basis. Emergency Response Team. The emergency response team members are responsible for to any emergency situation such as chemical spill, fire /explosion. They have been trained to mitigate, perform rescue if situation permit and to contain any emergency situation when it arise. Environment Hazardous Substance Committee. The committee members are responsible for managing, evaluating and management control of all the hazardous chemicals bought into the premise and storage. They are also responsible in drafting SWP for safe handling of chemical and storage based on SDS documents and industry best practices, CP and standards. They are also responsible to manage environmental issue such as emission, waste disposal and any environmental impact study. They act as an advisor to the ESH director, steering committee, WSH offices and employee for all Environmental, safety and Health such as policy, control, training and procedures Organisational programme for stakeholder awareness and involvement. (PC2.3, UK6, 13, 20) Ways to engage and motivate stakeholders in the change process within organisational structure and system. (UK14, 17) Establish the strategies for implementing WSH policy. (UK15) 14. Establish the impact and the resources required for implementation, prior to finalizing the changes. (PC2.5, 3.5, UK27, 28) Types of Programmes Description of Programmes Implementation of Programmes Short Long Term Impacts 1. Near Missed / Incident campaign The objective was to raise the safety awareness level of all employees and to encourage employee to feedback safety hazards while at work. With the campaign, the company hopes to move away from the RE-ACTIVE mindset ( Act only when an incident occurs) to a PROACTIVE attitude by getting every employee to be proactive and be aware of their working environment and be safe at work. A Near Missed Safety campaign to be launched by the Managing Director for a period of 3 months to get employee to be participative in identified hazard in the workplace. Forms (Feedback card) were printed and place at 8 different locations for employee to write their feedback. The WSHO was appointed to collect back all the feedback cards and review them for actions, award score and compile a weekly summary. The summary of the results were posted in the communication board to reflect the number of submission, individual and department scores. Awards were presented by the MD at the end of every month. It was awarded to individual and department for Best Individual and Best supporting department with the most submission. Financial Budget for the Reward; 3 months period was. Individual $100 Department : Trophy. Awareness Level. Lost in work productivity as staff will be away and higher cost due to overtime to cover loss hours. The short term impacts were that the safety awareness level was raised at every level in the organization, Rank and file. Getting people to act on the hazard immediately rather than later. People: Mindset changes. Reduction in Accident rate The long term impact is the positive culture mindset change based on Proactive rather than Reactive. Safety Hazard identification and risk control consideration can be built into every activities and planning / thinking process rather than fixing the problem after the implementation stage. Types of Programmes Description of Programmes Implementation of Programmes Short Long Term Impacts 2. Safety Training Programme. The safety program focus on the Hazard identified during the Risk Assessment (RA). There are: Material Handling such a forklift and pallet truck. Pen knife safety. Understand SDS with regards to PPE and risk control such as chemical spill and on the proper use chemical spill kit. Manual handling. Proper lifting technique. The safety committee members appointed to take charge of safety training were involved in preparing the training material with the help of the WSH officer and training consultant. The training were schedules monthly for all the relevant staff involved in the activities identified. The training was conducted by the WSH officer. Staff has to take a short assessment on 20 questions and pass the test. Employee attending the session was required to sign in the training log. A refresher course was also planned (within 1 month) for those who did not manage to pass the prescribe assessment test. Short Term impact. Lost in work productivity as staff will be away and higher cost due to overtime to cover loss hours. The staff safety awareness level with regards to potential Hazard in their own workplace was raised and they will able to communicate with their colleague and supervisor. The long term impact are : Reduction in Accident rate as staff will be more competent. Boost staff morale. Staff are more responsible toward taking ownership when safety is a concerns, They are able to identify safety hazard and contribute ideas on safety mitigation and hazard elimination. 3. Safety awareness exhibition. The objective to schedule a safety and Health exhibition was to raise the awareness of the industries safety trends and development. The exhibits on displayed gave the employee an visual view of the various safety hazard and the types of control measures available. The WSHO and the safety committee training team member make arrangement to have Workplace Safety Council and National Fire and Civil Emergency Preparedness Council (NFEC) organization to showcase their Fire, Safety and Health program. The fee for the external provider was set at $500 for the entire exhibition week. Short-term impact. Time away from productive work. Employee is aware of what some of the external organisation are dong to promote Safety At Work. Long Term impact. Boost Morale and Reduction is the incident rate. Staff will be able to continually understand and see safety is part of their activities at work and at Home. 4. Permit to Work System. PTW The objective in implementing the PTW system was to manage and control risk. The PTW system applied to the following activities. 1, Hot work. 2. Work at Height. 3. Confined Space. 4. Lock Out Tag Out LOTO The WSHO is responsible to authorize with the approval of the Senior manager in all activities listed in the PTW system The programs are mandatory under the WSH regulations. WSH (Confined Spaces) Regulations 2009. WSH (General Provisions) Regulations 16 2006. WSH ( SHMS Auditing) 2009 Short-term impact. Work Productivity will be affected as procedures need to be adhered to before works are permitted. Long Term impact. Most of the incident related to Hot-Work, Work at Height, Confined space will be reduced or eliminated due to effective control measured put in place. Advantages and benefits of having positive WSH culture in the implementation of WSH policy. (UK18) The benefits of driving towards a positives culture, i.e. attitude and mindset changes are: Raising the level of Safety awareness and becoming increasing informed. Taking personal responsibility and accountability in safety when at work. Take proactive step in hazard identification and suggest action to eliminate or minimise the risk exposure. People tend to think or see Safety as the sole responsibility of the Safety officers or the Safety and Health Manager. They are added to supervise and enforced Safety and Health rules. Its their roles to ensure Safety at the workplace. With a culture shift and a positive mindset, Safety is EVERYONE responsibility. Safety is MY responsibility. As an employee, I have to think Safety at all time when performing my task. When employee takes responsibility for his work safety, he will be committed to ensure he does not endanger himself and others while at work. Establish regular and effective review process of WSH policy and objectives. (PC3.1) The main purpose of any review is to align, update and ensure all the information is still relevance. The process involving going through the company current OHS policy, set objectives, corrective and preventive actions identified and put in place. Secondly it is for the purpose of continuous improvement in safety and health matters. This is necessary due to the facts the environment we work in are changing all the time. Action or plan can be ineffective due to changes in the process, equipment, technology or Legal legislation / requirement or other requirements such as code of practice and standards. By adopting a PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check, Act) model, we repeat the cycle and continually working towards sustainable improvement at all time. The periodic Management review can be schedule either quarterly or after an internal audit. The frequency of the review are as follows: Safety Performance Indicators. Monthly Review No of Reported Near Missed / Incident. eg :Loss Time Incident rate (LTIR). OHS Policy Review. (Management Review Meeting) Bi-Yearly ( Every 6 months) Safety Gap Status Review: Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA). Every 3 months. Determine the relevant information to be collected for reviewing. (PC2.4, 3.2, UK23, 24, 26) 13. Involve stakeholders in the assessment of necessary changes to existing policy and objectives. (PC1.4, 3.4 UK8, 25) Name of Information / Assessment Description Freqency/Duration of review Person in-charge 1. WSH Inspection Report. To identify any safety gap or safety violation during the walk-about by the appointed Safety committee members on a monthly schedule. To follow-up on corrective and preventive actions identified and timely close-out all identified hazard. WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 Monthly WSHO / Safety Chairman. 2. OHS Safety Performance Indicators. The safety performance indicator established for the years such as: No of accident / Near missed / Total Loss time. ( LT ) Loss Time Incident Rate ( LTIR ) Severity Rate. ( SR ) Every 3 months. EHS Manager Name of Information / Assessment Description Freqency/Duration of review Person in-charge 3. Risk Assessment To conduct Risk Assessment prior to commencing of any work activities in the workplace. The risk assessment includes 3 critical areas such: Hazard Identification, Risk Evaluation and Risk Control. Any High risk identified must be reduced to Low or Medium before work can start. If risk cannot be reduce to an acceptable level, SWP must be put in place to minimize the risk level. Reference : WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 Every 3 years. Or When there are changes to the process or an incident has occurred. WSHO / Department Manager/ Top Management 4. Quarterly Safety Management Review Report. The quarterly summary of the Safety Inspection report. The purpose of the summary report was for management to review safety gaps identified, status of the corrective and preventative actions Plan. (i.e. closed or pending action) To review resources and budget to fix safety gaps identified during the monthly safety inspection. Quaterly EHS Manager. 5. Safety and Health Management System. SHMS Audit report The SHMS internal and external reports are used for the purpose of continuous improvement activities. To determine whether the company current OHS policy and objectives need to be aligned with the organisation Safety and Health Management System (SHMS). The external auditor reports are use by the company for the purpose of identifying safety lapses and system weakness. During the OHS/WSH policy review meeting, management must take into consideration the Auditor comments and recommendation in order to ensure the policy can be response to the changes needed to improve. Every 6 months EHS Manager and SHMS Management Representive (MR) 15. Document and communicate to relevant stakeholders the changes in policy arising from review. (PC1.6, 3.6, UK16, 30) Documentation Record keeping, communication are necessary for the purpose of compliance to WSH Act such as WSH 1 WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006 2 WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 3 WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 4 WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009 Occupational Health 1 WSH (First-Aid) Regulations 2006 2 Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations 1999 3 Factories (Noise) Regulations 1997. The other purposes of record keeping and communication are for monitoring and surveillance of ill health due to exposure to hazard. Any employee identified during the surveillance will be put through counseling such as suspected or confirmed NID case. For employee working in an environment where the identified hazard was radiation will be assigned other duties when the permissible exposure limit; PEL has been exceeded. The 5 WSH documentation are: Monthly Safety Inspection Report and Monthly Safety meeting minutes. Safety and Health Training Records. Risk Assessment Activities Inventory list and Risk Assessment (RA) Health Surveillance and Monitoring. ( Cyanide exposure, X-ray, Audiometric-NID ) Noise monitoring record ( Internal and Boundary Noise) Communications The 3 main type of communication that are employed by the company are: Safety Notice Board. Quarter Safety News Letter. Video display. The Safety Notice Board. The boards are used to communicate, safety inspection report, Safety meeting minutes, WSH bulletins from WSH council, MOM News alert and Safety and Health performance indicators such as No of Incident case, Loss Time Accident Case, Severity and Frequency rate. 2. Quarterly News Letter. The New letter serves as a communication channel to : showcase interview with Safety personnel, Safety ideas, safety program update, Safety performance among various manufacturing sites worldwide. Corporate EHS news and directives. 3. Video Display. The Video Display are installed at the reception and Staff canteen areas for the purpose of communicating Safety and Health update and news to internal (staff) and external (visitor, suppliers) personnel . It also displayed the company Safety policy statements and commitment and monthly Safety Videos. List of Appendices

Friday, September 20, 2019

Encroachment in the North East Region of Nigeria

Encroachment in the North East Region of Nigeria DESERTIFICATION OR DESERT ENCROACHMENT can result from a change in climate or from human action, and it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. This has commonly led to confusion and misconceptions. A temporary or long-continued deterioration of climate may accentuate the harmful consequences of human occupation of the land and vice versa. It has often been suggested that mans activities have resulted in climatic deterioration, but this is difficult to substantiate. In any case it is important to attempt to assess the relative contribution of climate and man in the process of desertification in order to decide on the ameliorative measures that can best be taken and to estimate the likelihood of their success. Deserts are not expanding everywhere in Africa. Irrigation has converted what had been desert into highly productive cropland; afforestation has at least locally reclaimed the waste. However it is widely thought that the Sahara, the Kalahari and other desert and semi-desert regions are expanding. Why should this assumption be made? It has not always been based, I would suggest, on sound evidence. Students of classical writings in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were led to conclude that North Africa had been much more highly productive in Roman times. Many of them were inclined to explain the deterioration in terms of desiccation, though as early as 1828 the Copenhagen botanist Schow showed that it was unlikely that the temperature and rainfall of the region were very different in classical times from his own. Colonial administrators in the early twentieth century, comparing conditions at the tropical desert margins with those described by late nineteenth century explorers and seeing the ruins of ancient imperial capitals in the Western Sudan, also convinced themselves that the rainfall was diminishing Foresters and agriculturalists dismayed by the destructive land use practices of cultivators and graziers, so different from those they knew in north-west Europe, warned the governments of the African colonies of the dangers that threatened. As a result the idea of desert expansion, of an advancing Sahara, became firmly rooted  in the minds of the public at large. At the present day we find popular works on environmental deterioration conveying the same messages. Thus the Ehrlichs write the vast Sahara desert itself is largely man-made, the result of overgrazing, faulty irrigation, deforestation, perhaps combined with a shift in the course of a jet stream. Today the Sahara is advancing southward on a broad front at a rate of several miles per year. The recent dry years and their consequences may seem to substantiate such crude assessments of the situation. The African deserts are not man-made dustbowls; they are to be ascribed primarily to the continents geographical position. Africa lies almost entirely within 30 ° of the equator and a large part of its total area is occupied by dry descending air and receives little rain. Furthermore, the temperatures at low altitudes are generally high throughout most of the year so that water losses from land and water surfaces are high, especially in the tropical regions of low rainfall and relative humidity. The Sahara and the Kalahari are to be explained primarily in these terms. The Namib desert is associated with the cold Benguela current offshore, and in East Africa locally dry and semi-desert areas lie in the lee of highlands which have already drained the moist air masses from the oceans. Nevertheless, there are very extensive marginal areas where land use practices determine whether they shall be productive or unproductive in the long term. A great deal has been learned about African deserts in the last few decades. Aerial and space photography and the work of scientists in a number of fields have greatly extended our ability to appreciate the nature of the desert lands and the processes at work on their margins. We have the long series of publications of UNESCOs Arid Zone Research Symposia; there have been WMO and FAO studies of semi-arid regions; the University of Arizona has published Deserts of the World, an appraisal of research into their physical and biological environments (1968) and Arid Lands in Perspective (1969). The publications of the Pan-African Congresses on Prehistory and the Quaternary, of ASEQUA (Association Senegalaise pour lEtude du Quaternaire de lOuest Africain), and of Dr van Zinderen Bakker in his series on the Palaeoecology of Africa have  brought together the results of the investigations of a host of geologists, geographers,  archaeologists, botanists and other specialists, all of whose w ork has a bearing on the subject we are considering. Soil scientists and hydrologists, foresters and agriculturalists, anthropologists and historians have all made their contributions to our pool of information and we should now be in a much better position to view the whole question of desertification in its true perspective than were our predecessors a generation ago. Let us try to do this, by examining first the question of changing climates, then the nature of human interference, and finally the ways of measuring desert encroachment and the possible means of taking action against it. It has not been found possible to distinguish clearly any simple long term trends or regular periodicities in the climate, though many attempts have been made to do so, and it is necessary to adopt an empirical historical approach to the subject. In tracing what is known of the history of Africas climate it is useful to gain perspective by looking at the changes over the last century against the background of the last several thousand years. As pointed out by R. O. Whyte, we should distinguish major changes in climate, in or out of pluvial lasting thousands of years, from minor changes lasting hundreds of years, and from variations or trends which are experienced for 10 to 50 years.1 Each time-scale has its own biological significance. The shorter period variations are superimposed on the longer period fluctuations, and we must recognize  that as we attempt to penetrate further into the past, so our ability to distinguish minor oscillations diminishes and only the major changes can be detected. The role of man:- Mans role in desert encroachment is a very ancient one. He has known how to make fire since late Acheulian times; for almost 10,000 years he has herded his animak at the desert margins and grown his crops in the more favoured areas. He has established large settlements and cut wood for fuel and buildings over a similar period. Burning of the vegetation is possibly not a very important agency in the process of desertification; grass and trees in vulnerable areas are generally too sparse to burn readily. An exception to this general rule might be woodland alongside watercourses which has probably been largely eliminated in many semi-arid regions of Africa, possibly by fire. Gallery forest is a prominent feature of the savanna lands, and the concentration of what vegetation there is in deserts like the Sahara alongside watercourses is very striking. In the intermediate zones, streamside vegetation is sometimes less evident than one might expect it to be. Burning might possibly be the ex planation. A careful study of ERTS imagery would throw much light on the timing and areal incidence of burning. Heavy grazing by wild animals cannot be entirely ruled out as a cause of desert encroachment in the past. Certainly the eighteenth and early nineteenth century accounts of the enormous herds of antelope at the margins of the Kalahari and in the arid parts of Kenya, for example, suggest that their effect on the vegetation must have been very great. Animal populations increase and decrease in waves and the peak populations may not coincide with the maximum availability of food. However, the balance between available food and the bio-mass is probably better kept by wild animal species with varied food preferences than by man and his livestock. It seems likely that browsing and grazing by wild animals may maintain grassland conditions and that with their replacement by domestic animals woodland made up of thorny species of shrubs and trees may replace the grass. This seems to have occurred notably in the Karoo of southern Africa in recent decades. Bush has moved east and north replacing sweet grass veld, while extensive areas in the west are said to have become virtual desert. The nomads and their herds of cattle, roaming the margins of the Sahara, resemble game animals on Serengeti in adjusting their movements to the availability of water and pasture. However their movements have been increasingly restricted by political frontiers, taxation arrangements, and the occupation of grazing land by agriculturalists. Particularly important in this respect are the dry seasons grazing lands that have been taken over for irrigation. At the margins of the Kalahari, the pastoralists of eastern Botswana live in large villages and take their herds out over the extensive gracing land to the west in the dry season. This seems to be a sensible response to the natural conditions. However, there is always a tendency for the herds to build up in good years and then the numbers are kept high in dry years so that the pastures are eaten out. In recent years the risks of desertification as a result of overgrazing has increased as a result of three factors: The increase in numbers of livestock in many areas, e.g., north-east Nigeria. It would be useful to have more information about this. Doubling of numbers in a decade seems to have occurred in some areas, although livestock numbers are notoriously inaccurate. The increasing proportion of cattle in small herds often belonging to sedentary cultivators and herded by small boys, who cannot wander far, resulting in local overgrazing while other areas with pasture -main ungrazed. The provision of water in certain areas, such as parts of the artesian basin near Lake Chad, resulting in cattle remaining near wells and eating out the grazing round about instead of moving off to the rivers and other areas with dry season water and grass. The risks of serious deterioration are greatest when a succession of good years is followed by a period of long-continued drought. Woodcutting is a serious matter in many areas. Pastoralists are partly to blame. In places like Tibesti they cut foliage to feed their camels and use branches to build enclosures for their goats. However it might be noted that a considerable part of the woody growth in some areas springs from posts that were used for the enclosures and have taken root. Another threat comes from the demand for fuel in towns. The people in the surrounding countryside find the sale of wood to the townpeople a useful supplement to their meager cash incomes. K. J. Mortimore and J. Wilson have estimated that nearly three-quarters of Kano citys firewood consumption of some 75,000 tons per year for its population of 300,000, is brought in by donkeys mainly from within a radius of about 20 km. Although there is a return cargo of manure (over 10 per cent of the total applied to the intensely cultivated fields around the city), this trade represents the felling of thousands of trees every year. As Kano and simi lar towns grow at rates of 5-10 per cent annually, one can expect the woodland around to become very sparse. Alongside roads, at a distance from the larger settlements, wide areas are also being cleared by people who add to their income by making charcoal which is then carried into town by passing lorries. When the woodland has disappeared from such areas only animal dung remains for fuel for local consumption, and all the sylvan produce, honey, fruits and beans, medicaments and so on, are lost. Woodland in agricultural areas, as in the Sudan zone and the Sahel, is particularly important. It provides foodstuff for animals and man; it brings up nutrients from below that are released to the base-poor sandy soils from the decaying leaves and from the substances washed off the leaves; it brakes the speed of the wind, reduces the rate of evaporation at the end of the rains and the risk of soil blowing away towards the end of the dry season, and it provides shade for man and beast. Not least, it has an aesthetic value in improving the appearance of the landscape. Particularly important is the Winterthorn, Acacia albida, which is in leaf during the dry season and yields beans from great woody pods before the rains come. Multiplication of this tree should be  encouraged throughout the Sudan and Sahel. Cultivation in marginal areas during periods of higher than normal rainfall is especially dangerous, and is perhaps the main cause of desertification against which it may be necessary to take preventive action. When dry years follow years of relative plenty, ploughed soil-or soil from which the sparse cover of natural plants has been eliminated by cultivation-is at the mercy of the winds. The fine clays and silts are carried away as dust, and the sand drifts into dunes.The effect is likely to be irreversible except at great cost. Measuring the rate of desert encroachment In 1882 land classified as either desert or wasteland amounted to 9-4 percent of the total land on Earth. In 1952 it had risen to 23-3 percent. I give this quotation not because it is true but because it is meaningless. No definitions are given and it is not dear whether the difference between the figures is the result of the spread of desert conditions or, much more likely, whether definitions of desert and availabi lity of knowledge were different on the two occasions. However, it does bring out the point that it is extremely difficult to measure and state in numerical terms the rate of desert encroachment-though less difficult now than it was in the past. In the past there has been a good deal of reliance on such indicators as the  movement of towns and tribes, and on the chance observations of travelers and the tales they were told. Writing in 1921, F. Migeod noted that the capital of Kanem was shifted to positions successively further south; Bovill brought together additional historical evidence of the encroachment of the Sahara on the Sudan. Both were writing soon after the dry period of the early twentieth century. In 1935 E. T. Stebbing produced a map of West Africa showing the present advance of sand and attempted to estimate its rate of progress. The basis for all such calculations was very flimsy, but figures of 200 km. in 200 years were commonly given. The rainfall gradient from south to north in West Africa is remarkably regular and mean values diminish northwards by about 100 mm. per 100 km. in the Sahelian zone, so that the kinds of changes in the precipitation that are likely to have taken place cannot alone explain suc h a shift. All the writers pointed to the depredations of nomads, firing of forest lands and so on. Similar alarm bells were rung in East and South Africa and in all these areas government commissions were appointed to investigate. They confirmed that rainfall was not progressively decreasing, but agreed that the vegetation cover was deteriorating and in some areas water-tables were falling and rivers drying up. There is an interesting exception to the usual story of Hearing of the vegetation  being followed by a fall in the water-table. It was found in northern Nigeria in the 1950s that in spite of the spread of cultivation and the destruction of woodland in western Bornu, in the preceding 25 years the water-table had risen phenomenally, levels rising in some wells by more than 100 feet and perennial springs breaking out to feed small lakes.84 It was postulated that the destruction of woodland, by reducing the loss by transpiration of water brought up from depth by the tree roots, had increased the volume left to percolate deeply into the pervious sedimentary rocks. Similar reports come from West Australia and East Africa, and it seems that we may not be able to use the height of the water table by itself as a sound indicator of desertification. On the whole we are concerned with the vegetation cover, its completeness or  otherwise, its composition and its productivity. In assessing the rate of change in any or all of these we are faced with the difficulties of very great variability over short distances according to soil, slope, availability of water and, above all, intensity and manner of land use. Quantitative assessments of the plant cover at a particular place and at a particular time can now be made by using suitable sampling and statistical procedures, and extrapolating from the sample areas by using aerial photographs and other methods of remote sensing. It may be possible to monitor changes in the situation from season to season by satellite observations. Changes over a long period of time can now be assessed by comparing air photographs taken at intervals of 25 years in many of the  desert marginal areas. The Trimetrigon photography taken by the US Air Force of much of Africa during the Second World War could b e particularly useful in this respect (consisting of strips of vertical photos with obliques on either side). In some areas, such as Morocco and parts of southern Africa, photographic cover is available spanning an even longer interval of time. Opportunities for comparative studies of this kind do not seem to have been widely exploited and might be encouraged. One of the more interesting attempts to use air photographs to trace the shifting of the edge of the desert  is that of M. Clos-Arceduc who, from a study of the nature of the vegetation patterns in the Sahelian zone known as brousse tigree has come to the conclusion that they indicate a shift south of the vegetation zones through 150 km. in the Niamey region over 2 centuries or less. Combating Desert Encroachment Except for arid areas that yield oil, and the limited irrigated areas near the Nile, Niger, Senegal and Lake Chad, the lands at the margins of African deserts are poor and not likely to be highly productive. There is little to be said in favour of great schemes for climatic amelioration involving, for example, the diversion of great rivers such as the Zambesi and the creation (or reconstitution) of great lakes like those that existed in the humid periods of the Pleistocene. Such lakes would be extremely expensive to make, they would flood land which is now productive, and it is unlikely that they would lead to an increase of rainfall that would yield returns in any way commensurate with the costs involved. It is conceivable that the destruction of rain forest in the Congo basin, for  example, may have reduced the rainfall of areas further from the equator; by how much it is impossible to say. There is no question of afforestation in such a region on a scale sufficient to restore th e situation. In special circumstances cloud-seeding may be found to be rewarding, and it is possible that in the future ways will be found of modifying the general circulation advantageously. I would not regard any of these as being of much concern to us at present. At present, populations in the semi-arid lands of the continent are increasing at rates of about 3 per cent annually, as they are elsewhere in Africa. In the near future, however, it is possible that the rural population, especially the pastoral population, may decline. This has already happened in parts of the Sahara and Libya affected by oil production. There are three trends that are more generally effective. Firstly, young people going to school are becoming literate and have greater expectations than their parents had; secondly, people are consuming more and have the desire to consume more than they did; thirdly, people are congregating more near roads and in large towns. It is just as important to keep track of these changes in the human geography of the desert margins as it is to monitor changes in the vegetation cover and to calculate trends in precipitation. If effective measures are to be taken against desertification, the people involved must be persuaded of the advantages to themselves. Wherever possible measures should be of a positive rather than of a restrictive character. Thus, if it is inevitable that people are going to concentrate in large settlements in sensitive areas, then as well as attempting to regulate the felling of trees for fuel and timber, authorities may be able to cheapen alternative supplies of fuel and construction materials, provide young fruit trees at low cost, and so on. Perhaps the main problems are presented by pastoralists, whose traditional  systems do not fit neatly into the framework of a modern state. Nomadic flexibility is an advantage to people living in fluctuating, marginal environmental conditions, and nomadic mobility allows good use to be made of variable grazing. Settlement of pastoralists is expedient politically and has some economic advantages, but the greater rigidity seems to involve considerable risks of disaster when the drought years come again, as they will. In UNESCOs Use and Conservation of the Biosphere, it is noted that nomadism as a careful pastoral continuum is the least traumatic of human influences and as a form of husbandry utilizes areas which could not be utilized by man in any other way. I think we have yet to find a better alternative.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Paul s Unhealthy Desire in Pauls Case Essay -- Pauls Case Essays

Paul 's Unhealthy Desire in Paul's Case In her short story "Paul's Case," Willa Cather tells the tale of a young boy's struggle to separate himself from his common, everyday life and the people he shared it with. Paul admired the opulence of the theater, the wardrobe, the perfumes, the lights, the colors, the flowers, and the champagne. When he realized it wasn't possible to have these things, he threw his life away. Cather's purpose was to show that, by focusing on what he didn't have, Paul could not live at all. Many clues were given that Paul dreamed of leaving town. For instance, he was exhilarated by the Venetian scenes and streets of Paris depicted in the picture gallery. He loved to listen to his father speak of "palaces in Venice, yachts on the Mediterranean, and high play at Monte Carlo" (202). Also, when no one paid attention to his stories, Paul announced to his classmates that he would be leaving to travel for a while. These acts foreshadow Paul's fleeing to New York. The fact that he actually stole money to take this trip shows how intensely desperate he was to leave. By constantly fantasizing about being somewhere he wasn't, Paul could not possibly live where he was. Throughout the story, flowers are used to symbolize Paul's situation. The red carnation he wears to the meeting with his teachers is viewed by them as "flippant" and "scandalous" (195-196). This also suggests his attitude towards the gathering. Paul was very nonchalant about the entire thing. His clothes may have been a bit small and tattered, but by wearing that flower, Paul had no trouble holding his head up. He had always acted as if he were on a higher level than his teachers, and he felt it necessary to humiliate them and give them no s... ... of Adriatic water and the yellow of Algerian sands" (213). These are both natural images, both beautiful, and neither contain artificial elements. This is significant in that Paul spent his life focusing on the beauty of artificiality, but when I feel this sense of regret in Paul, this epiphany, it is too late. Paul stated a few times throughout the story that being in the atmosphere of luxury was "the only thing that could be called living at all" (198). He speaks of these times as "orgies of living," so I would imagine when he realized he could not afford that life, he felt that he could not live at all (200). Paul 's unhealthy desire for a life of luxury drove him to believe that his ordinary life was not worthy of existence. Work Cited Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case." Literature: A Pocket Anthology. Ed. R.S. Gwynn. New York: Addison-Wesley, 2002. 194-213.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Stephen Leacocks Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich :: Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich Essays

Stephen Leacock's Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich    Jonathan Swift has suggested that "Satire is a sort of Glass, wherein Beholders do generally discover every body's Face their own; which is the chief reason...that so few are offended with it."   Richard Garnett suggests that, "Without humour, satire is invictive; without literary form, [and] it is mere clownish jeering." (Encyclopaedia Britannica 14th ed. vol. 20 p. 5). Whereas Swift's statement suggests that people are not offended by satire because readers identify the character's faults with their own faults; Garnett suggests that humour is the key element that does not make satire offensive. With any satire someone is bound to be offended, but the technique the author uses can change something offensive into something embarrassing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Stephen Leacock's Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich is a nonthreatening, humorous, and revealing satire of the moral faults of upper class society. The satire acts as a moral instrument to expose the effect money can have on religion, government, and anything within its touch. Writing about such topics is hard to do without offending people. Leacock's technique combines money with humour, and accompanies his moral message with ironic characters; their exaggerated actions, and a constant comical tone to prevent readers from being offended.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Leacock's utopian world is filled with humorous labels that represent the "Plutonian's" personalities. "Ourselves Monthly"; a magazine for the modern self-centered, is a Plutonian favourite. To fill their idle days, the Plutonian women are in an endless search for trends in literature and religion. Without the distractions of club luncheons and trying to achieve the "Higher Indifference", the women would have to do something productive. Readers that identify themselves with the class of people the Plutonians represent would be embarrassed rather than offended by Leacock's satirical portrayal of them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   "The Yahi-Bahi Oriental Society" exaggerates the stupidity of the Plutonians to a point where the reader laughs at the character's misfortunes. The con men give ridiculous prophecies such as "Many things are yet to happen before others begin." (Leacock 87), and eventually take their money and jewelry. The exaggeration increases the humour while the moral message is displayed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The characters of the novel are ironic in the sence that they percieve themselves as being the pinicle of society, yet Leacock makes the look like fools. For someone who prides themself on being an expert on just about everything, Mr. Lucullus Fyshe's (as slimmy and cold as his name represents) perceptions are proven false. Mr. Fyshe makes hypocratic statments about ruling class tyranny, while barking down the neck of a poor waiter for serving cold asparagus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Leacock exposes the whole Plutonian buisness world to be

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Eating Breakfast in Relation to Classroom Behavior Essay

Abstract Breakfast is said to be the most important meal of the day because it is how your body cope with the eight hours of fast during your sleep it also boost our energy to do your task the entire day and a good meal in the morning can also help to regulate your blood sugar levels through lunch time, which plays a vital role in your mood. This study will provide the explanation on the importance of eating breakfast for the sophomore psychology students. We provided survey for the students to gather data on who are eating breakfast in the morning and those who do not eat breakfast before school. Our survey included questions that will identify the academic performance and participation of students before lunch break. In gathering data, the method that we used in this research is cluster sampling in which the entire population is divided into groups. All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. There are 31 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2A, 32 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2B and 36 sophomore psychology Students of 2C. Those who ate breakfast have more energy, do better in school, and eat healthier throughout the day than those who do not eat breakfast before going to school tend to feel anxious, has low attention span and poor classroom participation. We can say that eating breakfast has an implication student’s classroom behavior withouteating breakfast, people can get irritable, restless, and tired. Keywords: breakfast, behaviour, classroom, students, participation Introduction In this study we aim to determine the implication of a full meal breakfast to a student’s emotional and behavioral problems. Let us define the importance of breakfast. A healthy breakfast refuels our body and helps us function at our peak. Research shows that eating a healthy breakfast improves attention, concentration, academic achievement and physical energy. In Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, physiological need is the most basic and vital for survival. This includes the need for food, water, air and sleep. Maslow believes that these needs are the most basic instinctive need in order for one to perform his/her daily activities. In line with this theory is the theory of John B. Watson, a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors and in relation to VARK’s learning theory or Fleming’s model learners are identified by whether they have a preference for visual learning (pictures, movies, diagrams), auditory learning (music, discussion, lectures), reading and writing (making lists, reading textbooks, taking notes), or kinesthetic learning (movement, experiments, hands-on activities). After gathering all the information’s that the researchers need they will then come up with a survey which will be given to the sophomore psychology students for tabulation. The result will be the basis on the significance of having a full meal breakfast on a student’s behavior and emotions. Materials and Method The Eating Breakfast to Classroom Survey Questionnaires was used in this research. The testing packages that contain the survey were also distributed. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part A consisted of questions 1-3 regarding whether individuals eat breakfast or not and if they do, and how often they eat and what does it consist of you will see the number 5 question. The part B contained 6 questions asking the student to rate their behavior in classroom using the scale of (1-5) as 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest. Some questions had to do with attention and alertness in class, mood in class, participation, and concentration, test-taking in class. Method was used in this research is cluster sampling in which the entire population is divided into groups. All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. There are 31 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2A, 32 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2B and 36 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2C. Upon arrival at the testing classroom the researcher asked for the professor if they can conduct a survey. Once the professor let the researcher conduct a survey the participants were then give a survey test. Then researcher will simply told students to read each set of instructions for each section of the survey, then researcher instructed them to begin unless the had further questions. Once the students are finish, the survey packages were collected from the participants. The participants were also thanked and the professor for taking a time for the study. Results and Discussion The results showed that there was a significant difference of eating breakfast in relation to the classroom behavior of students who ate breakfast than those students who do not have eaten their morning meal. Table 1: Gender of the Respondents Gender Male Percentage Female Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 6 8 8 27. 27% 36. 36% 36. 36% 24 25 28 31. 17%32. 47% 36. 36% Total: 22 77. The sophomore psychology male student has a total of 22 and for the female is 77 in which there a more female sophomore psychology students than male students in sophomore psychology. Table 2: Living Condition of Sophomore Psychology Students Living Condition Dorm Parent’s House Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 5 3 8 27 28 28 Total: 16 83 In terms in their living condition most of all sophomore psychology students live with their parent’s house with a total of 83 and the other students live in a dorm with total of 16. Table 3: Total and Average of Eat Breakfast and Do Not Eat Breakfast Respondents Yes Percentage No Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 23 25 28 30. 26% 32. 89% 36. 84% 8 7 8 34. 78% 30. 43% 34. 78% Total: 76 23 Average: 0. 76 0. 23 Base on the table above most sophomore psychology students eat breakfast with a total of 76 and a total average of 0. 76 and those that do not eat has a total of 23 with a total average of 0. 23. Table 4: Parents Providing Healthy Breakfast in Family Respondents Yes Percentage No Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 26 26 33 30. 59%. 30. 59% 38. 82% 5 6 3 35. 71% 42. 86% 21. 43% Total: 85 14 Base on the table above most parents provide and healthy breakfast in the family with a result of 85 yes and other parents did not provide or being not with parent’s house that live in dorm with a result of 14. Table 5: Average Behavior of Respondents in the Classroom with Breakfast 1 2 3 4 5 1. How alert do you feel in your class before lunch? 8 29 39 22 1 2. How often do you participate in your classes before lunch? 7 31 43 17 1 3. How is your attention span in class before lunch? 4 33 41 20 1 4. How hard do you find it to concentrate in morning class? 13 72 12 2 0 5. How is your mood in morning class? 7 22 57 12 1 6. During tests, how nervous do you experience in morning class? 22 39 27 10 1 Total Average: 0. 81 2. 28 2. 21 0. 83 0. 05 The total average of scale 1-5 to the table 5 which has a breakfast of 1. 30 as the above is the higher and no breakfast of 1. 30 below which is lower. That in scale 1-3 is significant that sophomore students eat breakfast have more alertness, participation, attention span, concentration, mood, and test-taking with a result of 1 which is 0. 81, 2 is 2. 28 then 3 is 2. 21 than those who do not eat breakfast in scale of 4 which is 0. 83 and 5 is 0. 05. Eating breakfast is the important to our lifestyle as a student. The findings that most of all sophomore students live with parent’s house and the other on a dorm. Eating breakfast has a relation to the behavior of students in a class. A study conducted by Harvard researchers found that students who ate breakfast were significantly more attentive in the classroom, earned higher grades in math, and had significantly fewer behavioral and emotional problems. In a study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten breakfast passing the exam. The study found that only 65. 6 percent of the students participating in the study had eaten breakfast. This finding supports the results of several other studies that people of college age show an increase in the percent skipping breakfast over individual of a younger age. (Kleinman. 1998) This study contributes to the body knowledge of health and school psychology. Every bit of the data that gain will helps further our understanding of the influence of breakfast. The more information collected through research, the more specific and representative the results. In future, there will probably be much more detailed knowledge of this topic. Researchers will hopefully go further to test whether eating breakfast can have even more of a relation to behavior on people live besides just in school performance. (Phillips. 2005) Conclusion. Although this study is not yet establish it may suggest a trend in colleges in general. In an unreferenced studies have provided sample evidence that school student’s behavior and performance levels are affected by eating breakfast. Still other research has investigated the level of concentration in class is affecting performance of college students. The implication of this study is that eating breakfast is important to students that are learning in everyday to achieve a high score in academic purposes and have a healthy living. Acknowledgement The success of this study required the help of various individuals. The researchers would like to give our gratitude to the following people for their help and support. Without them, the researchers might not meet their objectives in doing this study. To our parents, for giving the support and encouragement to pursue our study. For giving us love and patience. To our classmates Angelica Rentero and Grace Anne Salvio, for giving us access to thepsychologysophomore students of Centro Escolar University Makati. To our dearest professor Mrs. Angelina Villanueva, for helping us to have a good and better title for our work and for guiding us always. To our friends students, for giving their little time to help us for our survey. And lastly, to all the people who helped and contributed great ideas and advices, especially classmates and close friends for without them, this study would not be possible. Recommendation Eating breakfast can affect the behavior and performance of students in morning class. The critique, suggestions, and recommendations offered in the preceding content, therefore, are intended to improve the capabilities of the study to carry out the important mandate of the Eating Breakfast in Relation to Classroom Behavior of Sophomore Psychology Students. This journal research highlights the panel’s key conclusions and recommendations resulting from its review organized by parts. Literature Cited: Kleinman, R. (1998 March). New Harvard research shows school breakfast program may improve children’s behavior and performance. KidSource Online. Available at: http://www. kidsource. com/kidsource/content4/breakfast. html Phillips, Gregory W. , Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams? , Bioscene: Journal of College Biology Teaching, v30 n4 p15-19 Dec 2005. 5 pp.

Monday, September 16, 2019

DITSCAP/ Orange Book Essay

The difference between the Orange Book and the DITSCAP is that the Orange book depends on the information that comes from the computer software that are within the computer information systems for them to perform their tasks and to achieve their intended objectives. (Lee, 1999). On the other hand, DITSCAP gives a ground for assessing the security of the information systems that are within the organizations, business firms, individuals and other private firms that give support to the firm. However, DITSCAP is diminished in its efficiency due to lack of a combined certification and accreditation framework tool. When used alone, DITSCAPN can be a very tiring process to the user as it has numerous cross checks of the policies and the requirements. The complex and multiple information that exist between these diverse types of information hinder a person’s ability to understand, generate, and assemble and to give protection to the systems. (Lee, 1999). In other words, DISCAP gives the process that is to be used, the activities that are going to be undertaken, description of the activities to be undertaken as well as the type and method of the management structure that is going to be followed during the process of certification and accreditation of the information technology systems that help to give the necessary security to the computers. This process aims at ensuring that the security process that is used gives the best security to the computers throughout the lifecycle. The certification levels of the DITSCAP comprises of four phases where the first phase involves the definition of the process. This involves understanding the organization, the environment in which the organization is in and the architecture of the organization that helps to identify the type of the security that is required and the efforts that the organization is doing in order to achieve the accreditation. (Lee, 1999). The second phase, verification phase, involves an analysis of how the security systems have evolved or have been modified for them to comply with the System Security Authority Agreement. The organization uses SSAA to come up with a modified and binding agreement before there is any development on the system development or before making any change to the system. After the system accreditation, SSAA becomes the basis for the security configuration document. The third phase, validation phase ensures that there is a fully integrated information system as was earlier agreed on the SSAA. The fourth phase, post accreditation phase, gives the activities that are necessary for the continuity of the accredited information system to continue working in its computing environment and to face the challenges that the system may face in its entire life cycle. (Lee, 1999). The certification Levels relate to the graduations defined within the Orange Book in that the certification and accreditation process which are interrelated and which give feedback to the other earlier phases when it is necessary. (Wong and Yeung, 2009). Each of these phases has some of the activities that require to be undertaken. In addition each of the activity has a series of tasks that need to be undertaken depending on the requirements. Each of these tasks gives out the input which represents the type of information needed to complete a given task as well as the outputs which gives the product of the task or the information which may also serve as an input in other subsequent tasks. The certification and accreditation process has to be expanded in order to give more information about each of the stage and to ensure that the staff understand their role in the certification team. The value of the â€Å"Minimal Checklist† contained in Appendix 2 of the DITSCAP applications manual is that it establishes criteria to be used for certification and accreditation by giving a guide on the required efforts and other factors that are related to this system. Assurance is referred to as the confidence which the features of security, characteristics and the functions of these features give to enforce the security policy. The assurance can be established for the business, the components and systems of the security. Therefore, certification leads to the assurance of a certain system in relation to its environment whereas accreditation shows whether the impacts linked with the system are either weak, tolerable or if they cannot be accepted at all. (Wong and Yeung, 2009). References Lee, S. E. (1999). Essays About Computer Security. Cambridge. Wong, A. and Yeung, A. (2009). Network Infrastructure Security. Springer.